Major and Trace Elements in Rice Seeds from Ko~ani Field, Macedonia

Nastja Rogana, Tadej Doleneca,c*,Todor Serafimovskib, Radojko Jaćimovićc and Matej Doleneca
a Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Department of Geology, Aškerčeva 12,
1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia,
b Faculty of Mining and Geology, Goce Delčev 89, Štip (Macedonia)
c Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)y

The objective of this study was to assess the total concentrations of selected major and trace elements in rice seeds from Kočani Field impacted by heavy metals due to irrigation with riverine water affected by acid mine drainage and other mining activities of the Zletovo-Kratovo and Sasa-Toranica Pb-Zn ore districts. The analytical results obtained with the k0-instrumental neutron-activation analysis (k0-INAA) revealed that the contaminant concentrations of the analyzed trace elements in unpolished rice were usually lower than their limit level in food. The only exceptions were As, which in the unpolished rice from some magazines of the local farmers from Kočani Field was in the range 0.109 to 0.52 µg/g, and Cd, with a concentration of 0.21 µg/g, found only in one magazine, which mostly contained rice grown in the most polluted paddy soils in the vicinity of the Zletovska River. The results also suggested that the regular consumption of unpolished rice could pose a potential health problem from long-term As and Cd exposure if weekly dietary intakes exceeded more than 2 kg of unpolished rice with the highest concentration levels of As and/or Cd.

Keywords: Major and trace elements, rice (Oriza sativa L.) contamination, k0-INAA, mining activity, Kočani Field,